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Tytler's Cycle

Tytler's Cycle describes the rise and fall of democracies. It is often quoted as follows:

A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the world's greatest civilizations has been 200 years. Great nations rise and fall. The people go: * from bondage to spiritual truth, * from bondage to great courage, * from courage to liberty, * from liberty to abundance, * from abundance to selfishness, * from selfishness to complacency, * from complacency to apathy, * from apathy to dependence, * from dependence back again to bondage.

It is doubtful that these words actually came from Tytler [source|http://www.lorencollins.net/tytler.html]. In fact, the second halve seems to come from an even more ominous speech by Henning Prentis:

Paradoxically enough, the release of initiative and enterprise made possible by popular self-government ultimately generates disintegrating forces from within. Again and again after freedom has brought opportunity and some degree of plenty, the competent become selfish, luxury-loving and complacent, the incompetent and the unfortunate grow envious and covetous, and all three groups turn aside from the hard road of freedom to worship the Golden Calf of economic security. The historical cycle seems to be: From bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual faith to courage; from courage to liberty; from liberty to abundance; from abundance to selfishness; from selfishness to apathy; from apathy to dependency; and from dependency back to bondage once more.

At the stage between apathy and dependency, men always turn in fear to economic and political panaceas. New conditions, it is claimed, require new remedies. Under such circumstances, the competent citizen is certainly not a fool if he insists upon using the compass of history when forced to sail uncharted seas. Usually so-called new remedies are not new at all. Compulsory planned economy, for example, was tried by the Chinese some three milleniums ago, and by the Romans in the early centuries of the Christian era. It was applied in Germany, Italy and Russia long before the present war broke out. Yet it is being seriously advocated today as a solution of our economic problems in the United States. Its proponents confidently assert that government can successfully plan and control all major business activity in the nation, and still not interfere with our political freedom and our hard-won civil and religious liberties. The lessons of history all point in exactly the reverse direction.

Prentis distinguishes three groups in society: the competent, the incompetent and the unfortunate. This warrants a discussion in and of itself...

"I won't have to worry about putting gas in my car, I won't have to worry about my mortgage, because ... you know, if I help him, he's going to help me."

Peggy Joseph about presidential candidate Barack Obama, 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P36x8rTb3jI

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fraser_Tytler

Henning W. Prentis, Industrial Management in a Republic, p. 22